I finally figured out the Swift 1.2 “if-let” construct

In the old days, pre-Swift-1.2, you have to nest if-let statements

if let foo = who() {
    if let goo = what() {

This was extended in Swift 1.2, and the best resource for understanding the changes is in the Xcode 6.3 notes (search for “Swift Language Enhancements”).

The usage of this new feature is not immediately obvious – at least not to me. I had a somewhat hard time figuring out how I was going to style these, and in the end I started off with this:

if  let foo = who(), // "if-tab-let"
    let goo = what() // tab then "let"

Then I started adding where clauses:

if  let foo = who() where foo > 1,
    let goo = what() where goo > 2,

Great! That worked. Then I tried adding standalone logic tests

if  let foo = who() where foo > 1,
    let goo = what() where goo > 2,
    counter > 5 // NO GO

On a further read of the Xcode release notes, I find that I’m allows one clause logic statement as long as its the first clause:

if  counter > 5,
    let foo = who() where foo > 1,
    let goo = what() where goo > 2

A short while ago, I tripped on an NSHipster blog where he deleted all but the first let, and then used a different indention format, which I really liked:

if let // one space between if and let
    foo = who(), // a 4 space tab stop
    goo = what(),

But when I started adding where clauses, the compiler complained:

if let // one space between if and let
    foo = who() where foo > 1,  //  2, // <- PROBLEM

It turns out if you read the notes closely, that the where clause applies to all optional unwrap statements back to the preceding let statement. So if you want multiple where clauses. Ugh. So I can do the formatting using the NSHipster style, but I’ll have to space the additional lets.

if let
    name = name(),
    foo = who() where foo > 1 && !name.isEmpty,
   let goo = what() where goo > 2, // 3 spaces (ugh)

I can even add back my initial logic clause:

if counter > 5,
    name = name(),
    foo = who() where foo > 1 && !name.isEmpty,
    goo = what() where goo > 2,

The whole topic of code formatting is a moving target, especially since Apple keeps enhancing the language.

Hope you find this helpful!

Swift Goodies: Using Enums for View/Segment Identification

One technique I used in Objective C to make my code clearer was using enums to map my ‘view with tag’ or ‘segment index’ to something besides a number.

That is, given a table view cell with 4 ‘tagged’ views, instead of writing:

switch (sender.tag) {
case 1:

I’d use an anonymous enum:

static enum { 
    NameTextField=1, EnableSwitch

switch(sender.tag) {
case NameTextField:
case EnableSwitch:
//default: // Not needed if you added a case for each enum value

In Swift, you can do the same, and even better, your enums can be namespaced (meaning, you can use ‘Email’ in more than one)

private enum Segments: Int {
    case Name = 1, Email

@IBAction segmentedAction(sender: UISegmentedControl) {
let selectedSegment = Segments(rawValue: sender.selectedSegmentIndex)!
switch selectedSegment {
case .Name:
case .Email:
//default: () // Not needed if you add a case for each enum value

When I go back and look at old code, these strings greatly improve the speed at which you can understand what the code is suppose to do.

Swift Goodies: Ideas for Cascading ‘if’ Clauses

Swift 1.2 has brought the ability to cascade let and logic within the scope of one if statement – this is huge and will be widely used. However, what’s missing is some concept of how to style them.

In much of the Apple code, one sees them cascaded on one line, then after 80 characters or so a continuation on the second line:

if let foo = x as? String, a = b(), let c = y as Int where c > blahBlah, more, and more, and more {

with the beginning ‘{‘ brace at the end.

Personally, I find this hard to read, and its hard to visually find the beginning brace on these multi-line statements.

I thought about:

    let foo = x as? String,
    let c = y as Int where c > blahBlah,
    and more

which is easy to type - hit the tab key after typing 'if' and then Xcode autoindents the rest for you. This is similar to a style I often used in large 'C' (or Objective C) if statements.

However, there would seem to be reluctance to wasting a whole line with 'if', so what I'm doing is typing 'if' followed by a tab followed by the first clause:

if  let foo = x as? String,
    let c = y as Int where c > blahBlah,
    and more

I'm fairly happy with this, and when I need to convert a single clause if to have multiple clauses, I then add a the tap in front of the first clause, and a new line + backspace in front of the '{' char.

You may not like either of the above styles, but its worth thinking about what style you do like, and then consistently apply it as you write your code.

Swift 1.2 Nullability is Improving My Objective C Code

Swift 1.2 introduced ‘nullability’, a feature whereby you can annotate your Objective C headers and declare method parameters, propterties, and returned objects as ‘possibly nil’ or ‘never nil’ (a third edge case will be undiscussed here).

I support a library that might be used with earlier versions of Swift and/or Xcode, so need to use the annotation in a backward compatible fashion.

What I discovered is that the ‘pragma’s don’t generate any warnings so it would appear you can just add those:

#pragma clang assume_nonnull begin // start of interface
// interface
#pragma clang assume_nonnull end // end of interface

However, the ‘nullable’ and ‘non-nullable’ annotations cause older Xcodes errors, and files won’t compile. The workaround is to use this construct:

#if ! __has_feature(nullability)
#define nullable
#define nonnull

So the above is one way to deal with the mechanics of using this new feature. But what of the actual feature itself?

When I sat down and looked at my code, I realized that I was often returning nil for an array that could have returned objects, but no objects met the criteria. After all, we all know that ‘[array count]’ return 0 for a nil array and for an actual array with no objects, right?

But really, this is sloppy coding. In one case, I have a protocol method that can return an array of objects and an optional NSError – if success always return an array and no error, and if failure then no array and an error.

This now maps much better into Swift – I can use ‘if let’ to test for an array, if there process as a successful return, and in no array then use ‘!’ on the NSError as it must be there.

I spent an hour or two really thinking about what I was doing in the public facing interfaces, and tweaking them to be more Swift friendly, which also meant they are now more internally consistent and don’t seem so haphazard.

First Swift Style Guide

I’ve spent a good deal of time reading the Swift manual, to learn this critical new piece of Apple Technology. All the gray-haired old timers are learning it, spending at least as much time as fresh-outs for sure. We know only too well how fast and relentless Apple pushes its technology, and those who dally will be left in the dust.

So many have asked “What constitutes good Swift coding practices?”, the stock answer being “No one knows yet”. Well, one good step forward is to more or less agree on a coding style (even thought Apple’s sample code is all over the map). It seems that Ray Wenderlich posted a Swift Style Guide  around the start of August, and I just read it.

Mostly I agree with it, and remember that this style guide is for code posted on its site, so in some sense must be more readable than code we write for ourselves. Not sure about making my tab stops 2 spaces, but I can see the logic in it – the big problem for real coders is going to be switching back and forth between older ObjC code and Swift, so different tab stops is a huge PITA.

An Interesting Approach to handling NSNulls in JSON objects

I was the lead developer of the Lot18 app – Lot18 is an e-commerce wine marketplace. In that role, I used the web REST interface to retrieve product, inventory, and reviews.  While processing thousands of different objects I’d occasionally stumble on a crash or UI anomaly caused by a NSNull null object buried deep in some dictionary or array.

My first approach to deal with this was to created mutable arrays and dictionaries, and walk the full tree, looking for dictionaries. It worked, but just kept getting more and more complex, and at some point you realize you’ve taken the wrong approach.

The light bulb went on, and I found a method that really worked well: add a category to NSNull. Thinking about it, the issue wasn’t the NSNull null per se, but the methods that my UITableView code would throw it at: asking for a count, or a property, or a value. A prime example of this was inventoryCount. If a product had entered stock, the number could be anywhere from negative (yeah! had to deal with that in a crash!), zero, or some large positive number. However, if the product had not been stocked at least once, the return was a NSNull null object.

So, my approach was to create a NSNull category and essentially deal with any odd method, and return a sane value:

@implementation NSNull (JSON)
- (NSUInteger)length { return 0; }
- (NSInteger)integerValue { return 0; };
- (CGFloat)floatValue { return 0; };
- (NSString *)description { return @"0(null)"; }
- (NSArray *)componentsSeparatedByString:(NSString *)separator { return @[]; }
- (id)objectForKey:(id)key { return nil; }
- (BOOL)boolValue { return NO; }

There well may be other methods that need to be added to this list, but the above was sufficient for me. Note the returned description string – it makes it clear when NSLogging objects that the value was NSNull null.

[ Note that this post was extracted from an earlier StackOverFlow answer.]

Now that Xcode 5 supports doxygen annotation, it’s time for you to start using it!

Ever since Xcode 5 added native support for doxygen, it really pays to annotate your code with doxygen style comments, which only require a few extra characters to comments you may already make.

In looking for tips and tricks, I turned up an excellent how-to written 4 years ago (but still correct) that offers many different techniques. For example, you can remind yourself (and others) how to use a particular variable:

 @property(assign) int ts; ///< Short Comment

or line wrap for up to 3 lines of comments:

@property(assign) int ts; ///< Set the complete ...
                          ///< the progress ...

If you’d rather use C-style comments you can:

@property(assign) int ts; /**< Set the complete ...
                               the progress ... */

The parser seems really smart about how finding continuation comments and also ignoring leading white space. In my examples, I indented the second lines, but you can leave them pegged to the left margin if you prefer.

The more common doxygen usage is to provide annotation blocks above methods, and the oodles of options you can use to do that can be found in this recent post on StackOverFlow (make sure to upvote the question and answer!):

You can add this handy code snippet to your Xcode Code Snippet library:

 @param <#parameter#>
 @returns <#retval#>
 @exception <#throws#>

as detailed here (and I just did!):

From then on you and others can get help during autocomplete, as well as by option-clicking on a method. I was slow to start using this, but now its getting to be second nature.

Also, if you start posting your open source code (using podspecs) to Cocoapods, they run doxygen on your files and create really nice documentation for them on CocoaDocs.